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@InProceedings{OsanyinGuCaMiHaGr:2024:VaDaIn,
               author = "Osanyin, Taiwo Olusayo and Guedes, F{\'a}bio Becker and Candido, 
                         Cl{\'a}udia Nicoli and Migoya-Orue, Yenca and Habarulema, John 
                         Bosco and Graciela, Molina",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Validation of Data Ingestion Technique in the NeQuick 2 Model over 
                         South America by Means of TEC, Ionosonde and Radio Occultation 
                         Data",
            booktitle = "Proceedings...",
                 year = "2024",
         organization = "Conferencia Latinoamericana de Geof{\'{\i}}sica Espacial, 14.",
             abstract = "In this study, an investigation of data ingestion into the NeQuick 
                         2 model using networks of ground-based Global Navigation Satellite 
                         (GNSS) has been carried out for different spatial resolutions over 
                         South America. This serves as a benchmark for cost-effectiveness 
                         in using ground-based GNSS observation for the update and 
                         validation of NeQuick 2 for a near-real-time specification of the 
                         state of the ionosphere. Statistical analysis based on spatial 
                         index selection of GNSS data shows an improvement in both middle 
                         and lowlatitude regions considering ingestion of data over the 
                         regions separately. We observed a decrease in the RMSE between the 
                         NeQuick 2 and GNSS observation as the number of ingested GNSS TEC 
                         data increases over the test stations with an average improvement 
                         of about 26 % and 28 % for both 34 and 120 observations. Our 
                         results showed that the datadriven NeQuick 2 model is able to 
                         describe the evolution of the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly during 
                         both quiet (10 March 2015) and disturbed (17 March 2015) 
                         geomagnetic conditions. The diurnal variation of vTEC, hmF2, and 
                         Ne over the test stations showed considerable improvement after 
                         data ingestion. Validation with Ionosonde measurements and COSMIC 
                         Radio Occultation data showed significant improvement in 
                         reconstructing the electron density of the bottomside and topside 
                         ionosphere profiles after data ingestion. Between the altitude of 
                         100-250 km, the NeQuick \$%\&2 is in good agreement with 
                         ionosonde measurement with an average correlation coefficient of 
                         0.95 and 0.83 at Sao Luis (2.58S, 44.20S), 0.94 and 0.91 at 
                         Boavista (2.83N, 60.70S), and 0.75 and 0.71 at Campo Grande 
                         (20.40S, 54.50S) during quiet and disturbed conditions. 
                         Likewise, the biases obtained for the peak electron density 
                         (\$%\&2 ) at different times are larger compared to those 
                         estimated for the peak height (\ℎm\&2).",
  conference-location = "Monterrey, Mexico",
      conference-year = "08-12 Apr. 2024",
             language = "en",
        urlaccessdate = "2024, May 27"
}


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